# OS2 Changing Shape of Water

No matter what style of glass you pour water into, the water fits. You can pour water from a short fat glass into a tall skinny glass into a square glass. It still fits. Liquids like water are good at changing shape.

Changing shape is easy for water because it is a liquid. Water has no definite shape.

Does anything else change about water as it moves from one container to another? Question: Does changing shape change anything else about water?

Materials:

Water

Tall skinny glass or jar

Short fat glass or jar

Square container

Scale

Ruler

Measuring cup

Procedure:

Mass the measuring cup When measuring out water, remember it has a meniscus or dip in the surface. Water is measured to the bottom of the meniscus.

Pour 1 cup of water into the measuring cup and mass it

Mass the tall skinny glass The problem with using this glass is how hard it is to see through it. I want to redo this project with a clear glass once I find one.

Pour the cup of water into the glass and mass it

Measure how wide the inside of the glass is in centimeters

Measure how high the water goes in the glass in centimeters The volume of this jar will not be quite right as the bottom is not squared off. It is close.

Mass the short fat glass

Pour the water into it and mass it

Measure how wide the inside of the glass is

Measure how high the water goes in the glass

Mass the square container When measuring any container for the inside volume, you are measuring the inside. This can be harder to do but the thick walls of this container distort the water volume results by almost 80 cc.

Pour the water into this container and mass it

Measure the sides of the container

Measure how deep the water is in the container

Pour the water into the measuring cup and mass it

Observations:

Amount of water to start:

Amount of water at the end:

Mass of water to start:

Mass of water at the end: Analysis:

Subtract the mass of the empty container from the mass of the container of water to get the mass of water in the container. The height of the water in the short fat jar is much lower than in the tall skinny glass.

Volume of a cylinder like a glass is the diameter times pi (3.14) times the height.

Volume of a square is the length of a side times the length of a side times the height.

The width is the diameter of the glass. Use the height of the water. Multiply to calculate the volume of water in each container.

Conclusions:

Did the height of the water change in the different containers?

Did the width of the water change in the different containers?

Compare how the height and width change.

Did the mass of the water change in the different containers? Liquids like water change shape easily from round to square and back again.

Did the amount of water change as you poured it from one container to another?

How do you know?

What changes when water moves from one container to another?

What does not change when water moves from one container to another?

What I Found Out

I decided to measure out 250 ml of water. The water had a mass of 246 g.

When I poured the water into the tall glass, the height was 11 cm. The width was 5.4 cm so the water had a volume of 186.5 cc. The mass was still 246 g. Glasses are slightly tapered. Jars have rounded bottoms. Square containers have rounded corners. Each affects the volume calculations a little.

When I poured the water into the fat jar, the height was only 8.1 cm. the width increased to 7.3 cm so the water had a volume of 185.7 cc.

When I poured the water into the square container, the water was 1.8 cm deep. The container was 10.6 cm by 9.5 cm so the water had a volume of 181.3 cc.

The height of the water was different in the different containers. The skinnier the container, the deeper the water was.

The mass of the water stayed almost the same. It got a little less from the beginning to the end.

The volume of the water did go down a little as I poured it into each container but stayed much the same. Each container was wet inside so some of the water did not our into the next one.

The amount of water stayed the almost the same because the mass and volume stayed almost the same. The changing shape was the only change in the water.

# Physics 23 Balancing Force and Mass

Find yourself a half gallon juice or milk plastic jug and fill it two thirds with water. You can use a gallon jug but only half fill it. Set it on a table or stool so it is about waist high.

First stand next to the jug. Grab it and lift it up a foot or so.

Next stand at arm’s length away. Grab the jug and lift it up a foot or so.

What happened to the jug? Did anything change about the jug? What did change? Question: How can you balance force and mass?

Materials:

Several different masses like a set of masses

Unknown mass like a wood block

Scale

Slat board 30 cm to 40 cm long

Wedge 5 cm tall

Metric ruler

Procedure:

Mass all your different masses unless they are a marked set

Set the wedge on a table top pointing up

Balance the slat on the wedge I used a piece of scrap wood for a slat so it was not smooth. that made it harder to balance on the wedge. Having more of a flat area on the tip of the wedge would make balancing the slat easier too.

Note: This is easier if the wedge tip is a little flattened. Work slowly moving the slat back and forth a speck at a time finally until the slat seems to balance. It will probably never balance levelly on the wedge. Get as close to the balance point as you can.

Mark the place on the slat where it balances, the mass center point

Set a lighter mass on one end of the slat Placing a mass on one end of the slat or lever makes that end sink to the table.

Take a heavier mass and move it around on the other length of the slat until it balances

Note: Again the slat will probably not balance levelly on the wedge. Move the heavier mass until you find the point closest to balancing. A 50 g mass must be closer to the wedge or fulcrum to balance with a 20 g mass on the other end.

Measure the distances from the center point of the slat to each mass

Do this again with another set of masses

Mark the slat halfway from the balancing point to one end of the slat

Place the slat on the wedge so the new place is on the tip of the wedge

Place a heavy mass on the short end of the slat

Take a lighter mass and move it up and down the other end of the slat until the two masses balance

Measure the distances from the mark on the slat to each of the masses

Do this again using other masses

Place the unknown mass block on one end of the slat

Use a mass to balance the slat

Measure the distances

Mass the unknown block The wood block had a mass of 55.29 g on the scale.

Observations:

Masses of the masses:

Distances to the masses (mark down which mass is where each time):

Distances for the unknown mass:

Mass used to balance the unknown block:

Mass of unknown block:

Analysis:

Multiply the distance times the mass for each pair of masses to get the force each mass exerts Getting the two masses to balance takes careful nudging of one mass until the slat or lever slowly shifts from one side to the other.

You are using the formula Md = Md where M is mass and d is distance. Use this formula to find the mass of the unknown block.

Conclusions:

Compare the forces exerted for each pair of masses.

Compare your calculated mass for the unknown block to its actual mass.

How could you get the calculated mass and actual mass to be the same?

Why did the effort needed to lift the jug of water change?

If you are playing on a teeter totter with a small child who weighs much less than you do, where would you sit so the child could move up and down instead of being stuck in the air? A 10 g mass must be twice as far from the wedge as the 20 g mass to balance.

The slat could be considered to be a lever. The wedge is the fulcrum. If you wanted to move a very heavy rock with a lever, where would you place the fulcrum to use the least effort? Why?

What I Found Out

My slat was not smooth. Its thickness varied so the balancing point was not quite in the middle of the slat. My wedge did not have a flattened tip so the slat never really stayed level. I moved the slat then the masses until the slat tipped slowly from one end up to the other end up.

I tried to time my pictures for when the slat was slowly shifting. That is how I got the slat to look so balanced in some of them. I had to get the masses very close to balancing so the slat moved slowly for the picture.

When I used the 50 g and 20 g masses, the distance for the 20 g mass was 21.3 cm and the 50 g distance was 7.7 cm. The forces were 426 g-cm and 385 g-cm.

When I used the 10 g and 20 g masses, the distance for the 10 g was 21.1 cm and the 20 g distance was 11.5 cm. This gave forces of 211 g-cm and 230 g-cm.

Balancing the 10 g and 5 g masses, I had distances of 9.3 cm and 19.8 cm. this gave forces of 93 g-cm and 99 g-cm. Because my slat was so short, I had to use the 50 g mass to balance the wood block. Could I use a smaller mass if I moved the wedge or fulcrum closer to the block end of the slat? Probably.

I used the 50 g mass to balance the wood block. The mass had a distance of 21.4 cm. The block had a distance of 17 cm. This gave me a calculated mass of 63 g. The mass on the scale was 55.29 g.

It took a lot of time to keep moving the mass a speck at a time to get the balance really close. I got impatient and tried to hurry so I wasn’t as accurate as I should have been.

Having a better wedge with a flat spot so the slat would balance better would help too.

I forgot my metric ruler and used the meter stick. This was long and clumsy making it hard to read the distances accurately.

The jug of water did not change. What did change was the distance from the jug to my shoulder. The force exerted downward by the jug was the distance from me to the jug times the mass of the jug. Increasing the distance increased the force and made the jug seem heavier even though it wasn’t.

Playing on a teeter totter is only fun if both people can go up and down. The heavier person can slide forward so the beam balances better.

A lighter force farther from the wedge or fulcrum can exert more force on the other mass. So I would want the fulcrum close to the rock. that way I can push down a little to push hard on the rock.

# Physics 22 Force and Mass

Newton’s Second Law of Motion is Force = Mass x Acceleration. He says the three are related. According to this Law, increasing the acceleration and leaving the mass the same should increase the force. Does it? How are force and mass related? Question: How are acceleration, force and mass related?

Materials:

Spring scale

2 Small plastic cups (like those from apple sauce or fruit servings)

String

Stopwatch

Tape

Meter stick

Procedure:

Mark off a 1 m + 10 cm course on a smooth table (if the table is rough, use smooth cardboard or a smooth board)

Put two small holes directly opposite from each other in each plastic cup near the rim

Cut a length of string two times as wide as the cup

Put the ends through the holes in the cup and knot them to form a handle

Put the masses in the cups

Zero the spring scale A regular scale is much more accurate for finding the mass of an object.

Use the scale to mass Cup 1 and Cup 2

Remove the mass from Cup 1

Pull one end of the string out of the hole it is in

Knot the string and pull it through the other hole until the knot holds the end

Put a loop in the loose end of the string

Put the cup 10 cm before the starting line

Put the mass in the cup

Hook the spring scale to the loop

Practice pulling the cup down the course using a constant force on the spring scale Pulling a mass with a spring scale shows the force used. It is hard to read the force accurately especially when pulling the force quickly.

Time how long it takes to pull the cup down the meter course

Record the force needed

Try pulling the cup faster recording the time and force

Remove the mass from Cup 2

Change the string the same way for Cup 2 but attach it to Cup 1

Put the second mass in Cup 2

Time how long it takes to pull the two cups down the course

Record the force needed

Pull the cups faster recording the times and force needed

Observations:

Masses Hanging a mass on a spring scale reads more force than pulling the same mass across a table. The mass is the same but the acceleration of gravity is much greater so the force is greater.

Cup 1:

Cup 2:

Times:

One mass:

Force needed:

Both masses:

Force needed:

Conclusions:

Should you start pulling the cup before the starting line? Why?

Compare the force needed for one mass and for two masses.

How are force and mass related?

Does the force needed seem to change if you pull the cup fast or slowly?.

Why do you think this is the case?

Did you expect to need more force to make the cups go faster? Why?

How could you use greater force to move the cups?

Newton’s Second Law of Motion says increasing the acceleration should increase the force. Did the force increase? Is a spring scale a really accurate way to measure this acceleration force? Doubling the mass being pulled does double the force needed.

What I Found Out:

I used four smaller lead wheel weights used for balancing tires for masses. One cup of weights was a little heavier than the other one. I tried using smaller masses but found it too hard to read the forces on the scale. The ones I used were 68 g and 48 g.

As was the case in the last Project, it took more force to start the cup moving than it did to keep it moving. Starting to pull before the starting line let me measure the steady force only.

When I pulled Cup 1 the first time, I did it slowly in 5.15 sec and had a force of .1 N. I expected to use more force when I pulled the cup faster.

When I pulled Cup 1 in 3.34 sec, it still took .1 N. I tried it at several different speeds. As long as the cup moved steadily, the force remained the same.

When I tied Cup 2 to Cup 1, the force needed to pull the two increased to .2 N. Again this didn’t change if I pulled fast or slowly.

Force and mass are related as increased mass increases the amount of force needed to move the mass. Once the pulling force gets the mass moving, that is all the force needed to keep it moving regardless of how fast or slow the force is applied.

I think I could increase the force used to move the cups if I pushed on them. Possibly I could use a collision to apply the forces like with the projectiles but that would not be sustained over a distance.

The spring scale didn’t stay steady very well. It is difficult to read accurately. Trying to read the scale and time pulling the cup was difficult. I don’t think the force increased but it may have. Having a much heavier mass might have made the force easier to see too.